<rt id="mobuy"></rt>
    1. <cite id="mobuy"><span id="mobuy"></span></cite>
      <rt id="mobuy"><optgroup id="mobuy"></optgroup></rt>

    2. <cite id="mobuy"><noscript id="mobuy"><label id="mobuy"></label></noscript></cite>
      <cite id="mobuy"><noscript id="mobuy"></noscript></cite><tt id="mobuy"><noscript id="mobuy"></noscript></tt>
      <tt id="mobuy"></tt>

      Ultimate Guide to Logging

      Your open-source resource for understanding, analyzing, and troubleshooting system logs

      Python Logging Basics

      This article covers the basics of using the standard logging module that ships with all Python distributions. After reading this, you should be able to easily integrate logging into your Python application.

      Standard Library Logging Module

      Python comes with a?logging module in the standard library that provides a flexible framework for emitting log messages from Python programs. This module is widely used by libraries and is the first go-to point for most developers when it comes to logging.

      The module provides a way for applications to configure different log handlers and a way of routing log messages to these handlers. This allows for a highly flexible configuration that can deal with a lot of different use cases.

      To emit a log message, a caller first requests a named logger. The name can be used by the application to configure different rules for different loggers. This logger then can be used to emit simply-formatted messages at different log levels (DEBUG, INFO, ERROR, etc.), which again can be used by the application to handle messages of higher priority different than those of a lower priority. While it might sound complicated, it can be as simple as this:

      import logging
      log = logging.getLogger("my-logger")
      log.info("Hello, world")

      Internally, the message is turned into a LogRecord object and routed to a Handler object registered for this logger. The handler will then use a Formatter to turn the LogRecord into a string and emit that string.

      Fortunately, most of the time developers do not have to be aware of the details. The Python documentation?contains an excellent article on the logging module and how it all works together. The rest of this article will focus on best practices instead of all the possible ways of using this module.

      Logging Levels

      Not all log messages are created equal. Logging levels are listed here in the Python documentation; we’ll include them here for reference. When you set a logging level in Python using the standard module, you’re telling the library you want to handle all events from that level on up. If you set the log level to INFO, it will include NOTSET, DEBUG, and INFO messages.

      Level Numeric value
      CRITICAL 50
      ERROR 40
      WARNING 30
      INFO 20
      DEBUG 10
      NOTSET 0

      Logging from Modules

      A well-organized Python application is likely composed of many modules. Sometimes these modules are intended to be used by other programs, but unless you’re intentionally developing reusable modules inside your application, it’s likely you’re using modules available from pypi and modules that you write yourself specific for your application.

      In general, a module should emit log messages as a best practice and should not configure how those messages are handled. That is the responsibility of the application.

      The only responsibility modules have is to make it easy for the application to route their log messages. For this reason, it is a convention for each module to simply use a logger named like the module itself. This makes it easy for the application to route different modules differently, while also keeping log code in the module simple. The module just needs two lines to set up logging, and then use the named logger:

      import logging
      
      log = logging.getLogger(__name__)
      
      def do_something():
          log.debug("Doing something!")

      That is all there is to it. In Python, __name__ contains the full name of the current module, so this will simply work in any module.

      Configuring Logging

      Your main application should configure the logging subsystem so log messages go where they should. The Python logging module provides a large number of ways to fine-tune this, but for almost all applications, the configuration can be very simple.

      In general, a configuration consists of adding a Formatter and a Handler to the root logger. Because this is so common, the logging module provides a utility function called basicConfig that handles a majority of use cases.

      Applications should configure logging as early as possible, preferably as the first thing in the application, so that log messages do not get lost during startup.

      Finally, applications should wrap a try/except block around the main application code to send any exceptions through the logging interface instead of just to stderr. ?This is known as a global try catch handler. It should not be where you handle all your exception logging, you should continue to plan for exceptions in try catch blocks at necessary points in your code as a rule of thumb.

      Example 1 – Logging to Standard Output for Systemd

      This is the simplest and probably the best option for configuring logging these days. When using systemd to run a daemon, applications can just?send log messages to stdout or stderr and have systemd forward the messages?to journald and syslog. As an additional perk, this does not even require catching exceptions, as Python already writes those to standard error. That said, follow proper convention and handle your exceptions.

      In the case of running Python in containers like Docker, logging to standard output is also often the easiest move as this output can be directly and easily managed by the container itself.

      import logging
      import os
      
      logging.basicConfig(level=os.environ.get("LOGLEVEL", "INFO"))
      
      exit(main())

      That’s it. The application will now log all messages with level INFO or above to stderr, using a simple format:

      ERROR:the.module.name:The log message

      The application can even be configured to include DEBUG messages, or maybe only ERROR, by setting the LOGLEVEL environment variable.

      The only problem with this solution is that exceptions are logged as multiple lines, which can cause problems for later analysis. Sadly,?configuring Python to send multi-line exceptions as a single line is not quite as simple, but certainly possible. Note the implementation here below, calling logging.exception is shorthand equivalent to logging.error(..., exc_info=True).

      import logging
      import os
       
      class OneLineExceptionFormatter(logging.Formatter):
          def formatException(self, exc_info):
              result = super().formatException(exc_info)
              return repr(result)
       
          def format(self, record):
              result = super().format(record)
              if record.exc_text:
                  result = result.replace("\n", "")
              return result
       
      handler = logging.StreamHandler()
      formatter = OneLineExceptionFormatter(logging.BASIC_FORMAT)
      handler.setFormatter(formatter)
      root = logging.getLogger()
      root.setLevel(os.environ.get("LOGLEVEL", "INFO"))
      root.addHandler(handler)
       
      try:
          exit(main())
      except Exception:
          logging.exception("Exception in main(): ")
          exit(1)
      

      Example 2 – Syslog

      The alternative is to send it directly to syslog. This is great for older operating systems that don’t have systemd. In an ideal world this should be simple, but sadly,?Python requires a bit more elaborate configuration to be able to send unicode log messages. Here is a sample implementation.

      import logging
      import logging.handlers
      import os
       
      class SyslogBOMFormatter(logging.Formatter):
          def format(self, record):
              result = super().format(record)
              return "ufeff" + result
       
      handler = logging.handlers.SysLogHandler('/dev/log')
      formatter = SyslogBOMFormatter(logging.BASIC_FORMAT)
      handler.setFormatter(formatter)
      root = logging.getLogger()
      root.setLevel(os.environ.get("LOGLEVEL", "INFO"))
      root.addHandler(handler)
       
      try:
          exit(main())
      except Exception:
          logging.exception("Exception in main()")
          exit(1)
      

      Example 3 – Log File

      The final option is to log messages directly to a file. This is rarely useful these days, as administrators can configure syslog to write certain messages to specific files, or if deploying inside containers, this is an anti-pattern. Also if you use centralized logging, having to deal with additional log files is an added concern. But it is an option that’s still available.

      When logging to files, the main thing to be wary of is that log files need to be rotated regularly. The application needs to detect the log file being renamed and handle that situation. While Python provides its own file rotation handler, it is best to leave log rotation to dedicated tools such as logrotate. The?WatchedFileHandler?will keep track of the log file and reopen it if it is rotated, making it work well with logrotate without requiring any specific signals.

      Here’s a sample implementation.

      import logging
      import logging.handlers
      import os
       
      handler = logging.handlers.WatchedFileHandler(
          os.environ.get("LOGFILE", "/var/log/yourapp.log"))
      formatter = logging.Formatter(logging.BASIC_FORMAT)
      handler.setFormatter(formatter)
      root = logging.getLogger()
      root.setLevel(os.environ.get("LOGLEVEL", "INFO"))
      root.addHandler(handler)
       
      try:
          exit(main())
      except Exception:
          logging.exception("Exception in main()")
          exit(1)
      

      Other Destinations

      It is possible to use other log destinations, and certain frameworks make use of this (e.g., Django can send certain log messages as email). The?HTTPHandler?might be useful when you are running in a PaaS and don’t have direct host access to set up syslog or are behind a firewall that blocks outbound syslog, and?can be used to log directly to centralized logging systems like SolarWinds? Loggly?.

      Many of the more elaborate log handlers in the logging library can easily block the application, causing outages simply because the logging infrastructure was unresponsive. For these reasons, it is best to keep the logging configuration of an application as simple as possible.

      A growing trend in logging in general is to separate it as much as possible from the core functionality of your application. That way you can have different behavior in different environments or deployment contexts. Using the HTTPHandler with a system like Loggly is a simple way to easily achieve this directly in your application.

      When deploying to containers, try to keep things as simple as possible. Log to standard out/err and rely on your container host or orchestration platform to handle figuring out what to do with the logs. You can still use log centralization services, but with a sidecar or log shipper approach.

      If fine-grained configuration is desirable, the logging module also provides the ability to?load the logging configuration from a configuration file. This is quite powerful, but rarely necessary. When loading logging configuration from a file, specify disable_existing_loggers=False. The default, which is there for backwards compatibility only, will disable any loggers created by modules. This breaks many modules, so use this with caution.

      Summary

      Logging in Python is simple and well-standardized, thanks to a powerful logging framework right in the standard library.

      Modules should simply log everything to a logger instance for their module name. This makes it easy for the application to route log messages of different modules to different places, if necessary.

      Applications then have several options to configure logging. In a modern infrastructure, though, following best practices simplifies this a great deal. Unless specifically needed, simply logging to stdout/stderr and letting system or your container handle log messages is sufficient and the best approach.

      手机看片自拍,自拍日韩